FPL | Electric Vehicles
 

Electric Vehicles

Electric Vehicle Technology

Batteries

An electric vehicle or EV is any vehicle that uses electricity stored in a battery to move the wheels. The battery is the key component of the EV as it determines the vehicle's power and driving range. It is also the most costly component. The most common chemistries for EV batteries on the market today are:

  • Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH)
  • Lithium-ion (Li-ion)

The battery is charged by plugging the EV into a standard 120V power outlet, using a cord that comes standard with the vehicle. The amount of time it takes to charge varies by vehicle and charger used (charging times can vary from four to 30 hours). There is also the option to charge more quickly using a 240V outlet, but this could require additional equipment and installation. As a general rule of thumb, EVs will travel approximately four miles for every kWh consumed.

Important: The consumption rate is dependent on driving conditions and habits, as well as outside temperature.

Types of Electric Vehicles

There are three types of EV technologies:

Electric Vehicle Type:
Electricity/Power  Sources:
Hybrid (HEV)
Regenerative braking (storing energy when brakes are applied) and the internal combustion engine
Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV)
Standard Power Outlet
Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
Standard Power Outlet


The following graphic compares each type of electric vehicle by showing which combination of internal combustion engine, transmission motor and battery that each type uses:

        HEV         PHEV        BEV


According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the average cost of electricity for:

  • EV is 2 cents per mile
  • PHEV is 3 cents per mile
  • Traditional gasoline/combustion engines is 11 cents per mile